Las teorías físicas/biológicas mantienen que la genética es clave para el desarrollo humano. La teoría de maduración de Arnold Gesell imagina la herencia. Etapas del Desarrollo Pregenital Oral Anal Edípica Latencia TEORÍA DE MADURACIÓN ARNOLD GESELL. Principios de Desarrollo de la vida Humana. desarrollo humano (a nivel físico, emocional, Carretero, M., “La teoría de Piaget y la psicología transcultural: Arnold Gesell, a physician whose work was .

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Harmonic Scale of Development. A proposal of integration by which to assess child development. Professionals interested in the area of psychological assessment are becoming increasingly sensitive towards the need for instruments capable of integrating the systemic and epigenetic character of the developmental process into its design. Most of the proposals put forward in geslel decades coincide in considering developmental change as the result of a complex network of transactions between the subject and its developmental contexts at different levels.

The Scale of Harmonic Development combines elements sensitive to the dynamism of the ontogenetic process: These stages, understood as “attractor states -a key concept in the Self-organizing Dynamic Systems Theory- lose rigidity and integrate variability.

The scale provides variables which allow the quantitative dimension the Average Development Quotient and the quality of the process of development the Index of Harmony to be dealt with at the same time. Initial trials reveal their usefulness as a screening test to serve in child development prevention. Development psychology; Child development evaluation scales; Dynamic systems theory; Harmonic development.

The construction of assessment and measurement scales of psychological development will shortly be one century old, since Arnold Gesell initiated his research in Yale University in the s. In parallel, research into Developmental Psychology has provided new explanatory theories and models. Both lines of investigation have yeoria interacted. However, although the scales of measurement have been brought up to deesarrollo at various times since, they have remained ascribed to the theoretical positions upon which they were built.

To this extent, many researchers into this development are arnld to the need for new methods to tackle its study e. In our opinion this need extends to the instruments of measurement of individual development. The results of an assessment may condition our interventions and, therefore, the course of a child’s development DeRobertis,for which reoria it would be necessary to introduce into its design elements which were sensitive to the dynamism of the ontogenetic process.

A scale constructed this way would serve to guide preventive interventions, respecting the individual developmental plan, by having available quantifiable control parameters as indicators of the quality of the process. The Scale of Harmonic Development SHD appears in an effort to renew the tools used to assess development which approaches them to this new concept of developmental change. As this is a first attempt, our assessment model should continue evolving so as to be able to desatrollo the mechanisms of change.

For the time-being it should be categorized as a filtering tool, which, in order to have a sufficiently well-founded etiologic diagnosis, will have to be complemented with other assessment procedures.

Due to this, our scale adopts some of the fundamental approaches and concepts of this approximation. The aim of the theory of dynamic systems Smith, ; Spencer et al.

This theory can be applied to any complex system, including that of human development. Developmental Psychology will interpret the processes of change and development as the emergent result of the interactive and dynamic operation of the system. The change will be the result of the interactions of variables within the organism itself and of its interaction with contextualized external arnpld.

Predetermination and finality are not possible here. It is an epigenetic concept of development: Thus, the system adapts itself and does so openly, continually, irreversibly, spontaneously and naturally, reorganizing itself and dynamically self-correcting via internal and external interaction. Based on this concept, the trajectory of development responds to non-lineal equations von Bertalanffy, In order to adapt itself, the system requires collective variables or parameters of orderwhich provide a description of the state of coherence of the system, and the way its parts combine at a determined moment of balance.

Serebrinsky, Bernardo [WorldCat Identities]

It also requires regulating variables or control parameters which compel or regulate the dynamics of the parameters of order in a non-determinist manner, presenting critical values over which they provoke an alteration in the system.

Theoretically, in the dynamic interaction of all the elements of the system an infinite number of different states could be achieved, but this is not so due to to the intervention of the attractor states towards which the system converges in time. Allow us to insist here in this idea, which shall be the key to understanding what is understood by a “stage” within the SHD. In general terms, the theory of dynamic systems define it as the grouping of properties towards which a system extends in order to evolve, attracting trajectories, whose only condition is that of its proximity to the state towards which it extends attractor.


In the words of Esther Thelenthought and behavior emerge as a result of the situation the subject encounters at any given moment task, context, etc. Some of the patterns of action and resultant thinking of the dynamics are very stable.

Serebrinsky, Bernardo

These states attract closer trajectories in such a way that they can be considered attractors in behavioral space. The increased stability of some behavioral preferences confers on them qualities akin to a developmental stage.

However, there exists an important difference: Stability is now a function of the organism-incontext and these attractor states are preferential behavioral patterns, and highly probable, but not obligatory. The system prefers certain states in its organization, and tends to regress towards them when it is disturbed. When the disturbance overcomes the threshold of the control parameter, the adaptive needs of the system then drive it towards a new state. Thus, the change is explained.

From this perspective, the temporal dimension could explain this operation, by which, at different times, the same conditions can produce different results.


That is, that in natural development, an attractor state precedes another dsl conditions it, outlining the epigenetic landscape of individual development van Geert, This theory, which, initially, is configured in the area of early motor development Thelen, bsoon reaches explicative worth for other dimensions of behavior, such as language desxrrollo cognition of. In the last decade, a variety of research into the learning of specific tasks has highlighted this vision of knowledge and dynamic models have been applied to studies which reflect development in geselll multiple aspects.

Thus, Sandhofer and Smithrevealed the interaction between the learning of nouns and adjectives; Zapf and Smith explained the generalization afnold the plural of nouns and Colunga and Smith explained the process of acquisition of the same items in terms of attractor states and van Dijk and van Geert ; tackled in dynamic terms the variability in early development of language and grammar.

Equally, Sheya and Smith highlighted the role of the properties of objects in the production of new ideas, in line with these principles. Frank, van der Kamp and Savelsbergh explained the activation of perceptions and movement through the competitive interaction between perceptive patterns of the system and the stimuli of the environment.

Fausto-Sterling, Garcia-Coll, and Lamarre a, b applied them to the process of sexual differentiation in early infancy; Simmering and Perone to the explanation of the memory of work as a flexible system which can adapt itself to the demands of tasks, despite its limitations. At the present time, Perone and Spencer have put forward a mechanism of neuro-development for visual discrimination based on simulations using fields of dynamic neurons.

We call this a cognitive tugin order to refer to the process through which the situation of stability or harmony reached in a specific state becomes unstable, prompting change as a consequence of the dynamics established between the activity of the subject and the conditions under which it takes place. The visualization of this mechanism requires a flat spatial representation with three dimensions: The cognitive tug uses the force of disharmony to attract the system towards a new and following state of harmony, that is, in order to make a change of stage.

From the disorder of a stage first is born the order which raises the development towards a second stage, and so on successively. This mechanism can be expressed in three phases. In each phase, the abscissa represents the different aspects of development Table 1 and the ordinate represents the temporal dimension Table 2. In phase 1 of stage 1 Phase 1.

Subsequently, the system tends to balance itself out Phase 1. At the end of stage 1, in the third phase Phase 1.

Escala de desarrollo armónico: una propuesta integradora para la evaluación del desarrollo infantil

At that moment, the qualitative jump which will carry the system into stage 2 is produced. The cognitive tug represented by an ascending arrow in Figure 1 again destabilizes the system Phase 2.

The tonic-motor relations and the communicative, personal egsell social functions, have to respond to the new demands of perception, accompanied desrrollo neuropsychological cel. In this second phase Phase 2. Finally, in the third phase Phase 2.

It will be then that the qualitative jump which will take the system into stage 3 will occur. And so on, successively. In short, the representation of the mechanism in the graph shows that each rebalancing is produced by gaining quantitative levels in each new qualitative stage, through the system’s desarrollk with developmental humao in the rest of the functions to the demands of perception -which shows new possibilities and ranold new needs. To sum up, the system scales levels, propelled by a cognitive mechanism which is cause and effect of the intra-individual variability harmony-disharmony variable.


Our conception of development is supported by ten differentiated functions Table 1: In order to obtain a detailed analysis of the processes involved in each area psychomotor activity; aptitudes, abilities and academic performance; neurocognitive development; linguistic and oral development; personal development and social adaptationand to group together the interests of the different disciplines which are involved dsearrollo development and its alterations, we have subdivided them into other functions and have developed a construct definition for each one of them see Table 1.

Thus, the motor area is made up of three dimensions: We consider development from a temporal perspective using a double scale: The quantitative scale describes the first six months, dividing them into four periods each of one and a half months in length; it divides the following six months up until the first year of life into three periods of two months.

The second year is studied in two periods of six months, and the remaining years in periods of twelve months. For its part, the qualitative scale reflects the seven stages which represent the attractor states, though desaarrollo states strictly speaking, which attempt to gather together the fundamental aspects of other classifications Table 2.

Each stage, as an dexarrollo state, claims to respond to a particular gesrll of organization of the functions. For their part, the levels respond to the quantitative aspects, which would indicate to what extent the functional requirements of humanp stage have been achieved or will be achieved. We believe that the denomination of each of these stages responds to what is considered to be its central developmental task see description in Table 3although not only.

These stages must, nevertheless, be submitted in the future to the demands of psychometric methods in order to accept them definitively as attractor states. The description of each of the stages corresponds to the dominant developmental task which gives it sense: The combination of the areas and functions designed with the levels and stages of development consist of what is termed Scale of Harmonic Development SHDAbellan, The SHD has a bi-dimensional structure, also known as the developmental matrix Annex 1in which the ordinate presents chronological age in each level of development, and where the ten functional areas of the assessment of development are presented in the abscissa.

Each area combines the representative items of each of the 20 age levels. The developmental targets items which simultaneously correspond to each age and each function are included in the intersection of lines and columns.

This is an ordered description of development, expressed by the aforementioned targets, over which the developmental profile can be traced, the average age of development obtained, warning signs detected, and programs of stimulation planned.

By keeping the number of items constant, the calculation of results is simplified and homogeneous information is obtained throughout the whole period of measurement. Each of the items is catalogued and deszrrollo in its corresponding file. As vel example, file appears in Table 4. The same method is geselp to assess development during the whole period range years, thereby allowing us to assess the child from birth to the start of adolescence, without changing the tool used. Thus, the procedures of analysis and the information obtained sustain continuity which facilitates their use and understanding throughout childhood.

Based on the concept of arnnold we propose, a control parameter which explains stability and developmental change is needed. In this sense, the SHD fel a new value, the Index of Harmony IH, situated between 0 andreferring to variability, easily calculable using the dispersion of data within the individual file of the child.

If an adequately broad period of time is taken into account – which is possible, as the same assessment instrument is available from birth to puberty- the IH allows the individual dynamics of adjustments and readjustments amongst the ten functions described in each individual case to be observed and assessed.

The points of greatest disharmony, in this type of profile, will signal a moment humanp change. This idea is fundamental to give independence to the comparison of individual development in relation to statistical norms, since it permits each case to be contrasted with itself over and over, without taking chronological age into account.

In this desxrrollo, individual development is understood as a non-linear course, and as the result of multiple variables, from which there emerges an outcome which is not forecast either by genetic inheritance or finalism. Based on the developmental profile reflected in the matrix of items for each case, it is possible to calculate the average level of development which relates to any given moment.