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ATX (Advanced Technology eXtended) is a motherboard configuration specification developed SFX; TFX; WTX; AMD GES; 5 EPS12V ATX also made the PS/2-style mini-DIN keyboard and mouse connectors Power Supply Design Guide, v · EPS12V Power Supply Design Guide v Insignia W ATX12V /EPS12V Power Supply: Designed to power select computers; W continuous power; ATX12V /EPS12V Specifications. We’ll answer PSU spec questions of modular vs. non-modular PSUs, EPS12V vv The EPS (Entry-level Power Supply) standard is.

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Modern personal computers universally use switched-mode power supplies. Some power supplies have a manual switch for selecting input voltage, while others automatically adapt to the mains voltage.

Most modern desktop personal computer power supplies conform to the ATX specificationwhich includes form factor and voltage tolerances. ATX power supplies are turned on and off by a signal from the motherboard. They also provide a signal to the motherboard to indicate when the DC voltages are in spec, so that the computer is able to safely power up and boot. The desktop computer power supply changes alternating current from a wall socket to low-voltage direct current to operate the processor and peripheral devices.

Several direct-current voltages are required, and they must be regulated with some accuracy to s;ec stable operation of the computer. A power supply rail or voltage rail refers to a single voltage provided by a power supply unit PSU. First-generation microcomputer and home computer power supply units used epss12v heavy step-down transformer and a linear power supply, as used, in for example, the Commodore PET introduced in The Apple IIalso introduced inwas noted for its switched-mode power supplywhich was lighter and smaller than an equivalent linear power spc would have been, and which had no cooling fan.

The switched-mode supply uses a ferrite-cored dps12v frequency transformer and power transistors that switch thousands of times per second.

By adjusting the switching time of the transistor, the output voltage can be closely controlled without dissipating energy as heat in a linear regulator. The development of high-power and high-voltage transistors at economical prices made it practical to introduce switch mode supplies, that had been used in aerospace, mainframes, minicomputers and color television, into desktop personal computers.

The Apple II design by Atari engineer Rod Holt was awarded a patent, [2] [3] and was in the vanguard of modern computer power supply design. Now all modern computers use switched-mode power supplies, which are lighter, less costly, and more efficient than equivalent linear power supplies.

Computer power supplies may have short circuit protection, overpower overload protection, over-voltage protection, under-voltage protection, over-current protection, and over-temperature protection. The ATX standard followed some manufacturers design [ citation needed ] to have power supplies also supply a standby voltage, so that most of the computer system could be powered off after preparing for hibernation or shutdown, and powered back on by an event.

This standby voltage is generated by a smaller power supply inside the unit. The standby power source was a small linear power supply with conventional transformer, which was later changed to a switching power supply, sharing some components of the main unit due to cost- and energy-saving requirements.

Power supplies designed for worldwide use were equipped with an input voltage selector switch that allowed the user to configure the unit for use on local power grid. Connecting the unit configured for the lower range to a higher-voltage grid usually resulted in an immediate permanent damage.

When the power factor correction PFC was required, those filter capacitors were replaced with higher-capacity ones, together with a coil installed in series to delay the inrush current. This is the simple design of a passive PFC.

The first active PFC circuits just delayed the inrush. Newer PFC circuits also replace the NTC -based inrush current limiterwhich is an expensive part previously located next to the fuse. An additional wire referred to as ‘Power Good’ is used to prevent digital circuitry operation during the initial milliseconds of power supply turn-on, where output voltages and currents are rising but not yet sufficient or stable for proper device operation.

Once the output power is ready to use, the Power Good signal tells the digital circuitry that it can begin to operate. In a common variant found in tower cases, the line-voltage switch was connected to the power supply with a short cable, allowing it to be mounted apart from the power supply.

An early microcomputer power supply was either fully on or off, controlled by the mechanical line-voltage switch, and energy saving low-power idle modes were not a design consideration of early computer power supplies. These power supplies were generally not capable of power saving modes such as standby or “soft off”, or scheduled turn-on power controls.

Due to the always-on design, in the event of a short circuiteither a fuse would blow, or a switched-mode supply would repeatedly cut the power, wait a brief period of time, and attempt to restart. For some power supplies the repeated restarting is audible as a quiet rapid chirping or ticking emitted from the device. When Intel developed the ATX standard power supply connector published inmicrochips operating on 3. Earlier computers requiring 3. The ATX connector provides multiple wires and power connections for the 3.

In ATX-style systems, the front-panel power switch provides only a control signal to the power supply and does not switch the mains AC voltage. This low-voltage control allows other hardware or software to turn the system on and off.

Power supply unit (computer)

As transistors become smaller on chips, it becomes preferable to operate them on lower supply voltages, and the lowest supply voltage is often desired by the densest chip, the central processing unit. In order to supply large amounts of low-voltage power specc the Pentium and subsequent microprocessors, a special power supply, the voltage regulator module began to be included on motherboards.

Low-quality power supply manufacturers sometimes take advantage of this overspecification by assigning unrealistically high power supply ratings, knowing that very few customers fully understand power supply ratings. Since certain variants, CPUs use lower operating voltages such as 3. Jumpers or dip switches set the output voltages to the installed CPU’ s specification. Ep1s2v newer CPUs required higher currents, switching mode voltage regulators like eps12g converters replaced linear rps12v for efficiency.

Rarely, a linear regulator generated these 3. Later regulators managed all the 3. Cutting the pulse by ep12v voltage regulator the rato of the 3. Some of these PSUs use two different chokes, feeding the to the 3. In designs using identical chokes, the pulse width manage the ratio. Voltage drop on connectors forced the designers to place such buck converters next to the device. The latest specification is v2. The EPS standard provides a more powerful and stable environment for critical server-based systems and applications.

As power supply capacity increased, the ATX power fps12v standard was amended beginning with version 2. The requirement was later deleted from version 2. The rule was intended to set a safe limit on the current able rps12v pass through any single output wire.

A sufficiently large current can cause serious damage in the event of a short circuitor can melt the wire or its insulation in the case of a fault, or potentially start a fire or damage other components. Each rail delivers up to a limited amount of current through one or more cables, and each rail is independently controlled by its own current sensor which shuts down the supply upon excess current.

Unlike eps1v fuse or circuit breakerthese limits reset as soon as the overload is removed. Obviously, if the group of wires is limited to 20A, so is each wire in it.

The current limits for each group of cables is then documented so the user can avoid placing too many high-current loads in the same group. Originally at the time of ATX 2. When the assignment of connectors to rails is done at manufacturing time it is not always possible to move a given load to 29 different rail or manage the 922 of current across devices. In some cases, in violation of their own advertising claims to include it.

The requirement was withdrawn as a result, however the issue left its mark on PSU designs, which can be categorized into single rail and multiple rail designs. Both may and often do contain current limiting controllers. As of ATX 2. A multiple rail design does the same, but limits the current supplied to each individual connector or group of connectorsand the limits it imposes are the manufacturer’s choice rather than set by the ATX rps12v. The reasons epx12v for this approach to power supply are that it eliminates cross-load problems, simplifies and reduces internal wiring that can affect airflow and cooling, reduces costs, increases power supply efficiency, and reduces noise by bringing the power supply fan speed under the control eps21v the motherboard.

The overall power draw on a PSU is limited by the fact that all of the supply rails come through one transformer and any of its primary side circuitry, like switching components.

This protects against system performance degradation, and against power supply overloading. Power supplies label their total power output, and label how this is determined by the electrical current limits for spdc of the voltages supplied. Some power supplies have no-overload protection. The system power consumption is a sum of the power ratings for all of the components of the computer system that draw on the power supply. The manufacturers of these computer system components, especially graphics cards, tend to over-rate their power requirements, to minimize support issues due to too low of a power supply.

Power supply unit (computer) – Wikipedia

Various initiatives exist to improve the efficiency of computer power supplies. Climate Savers Computing Initiative promotes energy saving and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by encouraging development and use of more efficient power supplies.

Efficient power supplies also save money by wasting less epec as a result they use less electricity to power the same computer, and they emit less waste heat which results significant energy eps122v on central air conditioning in the summer. The gains sps12v using an efficient power supply are more substantial in computers that use a lot of power. Although a power supply with a larger than needed power rating will have an extra margin of safety against overloading, such a unit is often less efficient and wastes more electricity at lower loads than a more appropriately sized unit.

A power supply that is self-certified by its manufacturer may claim output ratings double or more than what is actually provided.

Many power supplies create their 3.

The two rails involved are labeled on the power supply with a combined current limit. For a description of the potential problem, a 3. In this case, loading the 3. The energy efficiency of a power supply drops significantly at low loads. Therefore, it is important to match the capacity of a power supply to the power needs of the computer.

The curve varies from model to model examples of how this curve looks can be seen on test reports of energy efficient models found on the 80 PLUS website. Most desktop personal computer power supplies are a square metal box, and have a large bundle of wires emerging from one end. Opposite the wire bundle is the back face of the power supply, with an air vent and an IEC C14 connector to supply AC power.

A label on one side of the box lists technical information about the power supply, including safety certifications and maximum output power. The CE mark is required for power supplies sold in Europe and India.

Some power supplies come with sleeved cables, which besides being more aesthetically pleasing, also make wiring easier and have a less detrimental effect on airflow.

A modular power supply provides a detachable cable system, offering the ability to remove unused connections at the expense of a small amount of extra electrical resistance introduced by the additional connector. Many modular supplies have some permanent multi-wire cables with connectors at the ends, such as PC main and four-pin Molexthough newer supplies marketed as “Fully Modular” allow even these to be disconnected. The long narrow profile of the power supply fits easily into low profile systems.

The fan placement can be used to efficiently exhaust air from the processor and core area of the motherboard, making possible smaller, more efficient systems using common industry components. External power supply could send data about itself power, current and voltage ratings to the computer.

For example, genuine Dell power source uses 1-Wire protocol to send data by third wire to the laptop. The laptop then refuse non-matching adapter. All other voltages are generated by voltage regulator modules on the motherboard.


Title, Jose Rizal: life, works, and writings. Author, Gregorio F. Zaide. Edition, revised. Publisher, National Book Store, ISBN, , Title, José Rizal: Life, Works, and Writings. Author, Gregorio F. Zaide. Publisher, Villanueva Book Store, Original from, the University of Michigan. Digitized. Jose Rizal: Life, works, and writings of a genuis, writer, scientist, and national hero Browse our editors’ picks for the best books of the year in fiction, nonfiction, . historian Gregorio Zaide, tells us of the contribution of Doctor Jose Rizal in.

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Not only is Rizal the most famous man of his own people, but, the greatest man the Malayan race has produced. His memory will never perish in his fatherland, and future generations of Spaniards will yet learn to utter his name with respect and reverence.

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Las Soledades de Luis de Gongora Argote. A Guide into the Soledades. by Professor on. This Guide takes you through the Dedication and the first. File:Las Soledades (Góngora).jpg las Soledades en el Manuscrito Chacón de las obras de Luis de Góngora (l. Luis de Góngora y Argote. : LAS SOLEDADES.: Nuevamente publicadas por Dámaso Alonso. Ed. del Arbol. Madrid. pp. 2ªed. 17 x 12 cm. Rústica.

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Paperbackpages. Published January 1st by Ediciones Catedra S. To see what your friends thought of this book, please sign up. To ask other readers questions about Soledadesplease sign up. Lists with This Book. Given the length, I expected a narrative poem, however there is no story to be found here.

Instead, the reader finds an absolute plethora of sensuous description as a shipwreck survivor wanders about beautiful countryside. The natural world and gongorw love are the main focus of dizzying metaphors that meld classical mythology with nature. Gongora loves crystals and nymphs from Greek myth, both of which recur constantly. Although I often had little idea what he was talking about, I enjoyed the overwhelming sumptuousness of everything.

The first flies, frosting the waves; the second, in an indolent motion meets the sea, whose white-coloured foam makes of its dark lsa prow the bright resplendent throat of an august Coya, empress of Peru, to whom the Southern Sea rendered each hour one hundred strands of pearls.

The pleasure was in the imagery rather than the assonance, I think. I agree with her that rhyme is probably easier to achieve in Spanish than English in general.

Actually, this poem made me wish I could read Spanish, not for the first time.

Mapping words to their translations was rather fun, although I didn’t attempt it systematically. Sadly, ogngora only Spanish I know is some swearing. Although I thought the translation was beautifully done, I sometimes found fault with the explanatory notes.

File:Las Soledades (Góngora).jpg

Most are very helpful, as it often not remotely obvious what Gongora is referring to. Some seemed unnecessary – Sisyphus and Bacchus are pretty well known, right?

Lustrum was new to me, for instance; apparently it means a period of five years. The inclusion of obscure words fitted well with the density of allusions to minor mythical figures, though, and my knowledge of mythology has definitely been enhanced. Now I know who Pomona is and where the cornucopia came from. A reader’s visualization of Gongora’s poetry should be breathtaking. A prerequisite is a thorough education in Greek mythology, for the poet repeatedly alludes to that substantial body of work.

Góngora heroico. Las Soledades y la tradición épica | CEEH

If you have this knowledge, then you will be amazed that Gongora is so little known outside of Spain. He has inherited the vestments of the ancient Greek poets. And this is my impression by reading it in English without the rhyme scheme in Spanish! Truly a brilliant poet. His Solitudes stands as his artistic will and testament. This is definitely the translation to read; I tried Wilson’s first, and it was impossible.

I subsequently compared the present translation with another recent one, by John Dent-Young, and that one seemed too disconnected from the original text, more a reconstruction than a translation.

The Solitudes were designed to be difficult at a moment when decorous rhetorical obscurity and conceited poetics were in vogue. That the syntactic experimentation — marked by flagrant and sometimes illegal hyperbaton and a flair for Latinate expression — read extreme for the seventeenth century, though, is the moral of the backlash against the text, in part.

I think the first Solitude might be my favorite epic poem. It is hypnotic, adventurous, peaceful, and sublime. The language is haunting and elusive, but never distant. At its most abstract, it remains centered on the most concrete human experiences: It is about a shipwrecked outcast who is welcomed home in a place that is very far from home. Despite its very Spanish and Latin roots, I found myself thinking of the old Anglo-Saxon epics of wand I think the first Solitude might be my favorite epic poem.

Despite its very Spanish and Latin roots, I found myself thinking of the old Anglo-Saxon epics of wanderers and outcasts, which perhaps speaks to both the universality of the poem and my own background as an English-speaker.

I read the first Solitude twice in a row in different translations just to experience the journey again. The second Solitudewhich I only read once in the Edith Grossman translation, was admittedly more abstract and slightly more difficult for all the allusions to myth.

Footnotes are required for both Solitudes, but I also recommend reading through them once without consulting the footnotes, just for the pleasure of being lost — sometimes literally, in the case of the second poem — in the text. This is required reading for lovers of the written word. Probably a little over-ambitious for my first book-length poem in Spanish. But Edith Grossman’s facing translation is a masterful lifeline. It is there to be evoked for its own sake in the most rarefied, figurative, sensuous language because language itself, not its emotive referent or expressive content, is the intrinsic aesthetic component of poetry.

Gongora belongs in the great pantheon of classic poets. Mythology sings throughout nearly ever stanza. He also belongs in every age, as elements can be found in nearly each style. It is difficult stuff, but beautiful. My favorite verses are from the First Solitude: Wonder is mute, it speaks by being silent, and, blind, it follows a river, that-shining child of those precipices– in convoluted discourse, and digressive, benevolent it tyrannizes the fields; with its banks ornamented by fruit trees, Copia herself desires it for her horn -if the creature of Amalthea had been armed with crystal transparency-; setting edifices in its silver, crowning itself with walls, it embraces, imprisons islands, from the high grotto where it first breaks free to the opaque jasper waters deep where pride is lost and memory hides away.

Astonishment, accoutered in cold marble, scarce could raise its eyebrows; emulation, shod in hard ice, is rooted, slow. Aug 23, Sam rated it really liked it Shelves: Let me start off by saying that well before finishing even the first Soledad there are twoI knew I would have to go back and re-read these poems which I intend to do. John Beverley’s introduction and footnotes are incredibly helpful, and sometimes nearly fill up entire pages.

Also, the inclusion of a back-and-forth between a critic and Gongora is wonderful because we get an idea of how the poet viewed his own writing. I feel like I spent so much time trying to unravel thes Let me start off by saying that well before finishing even the first Soledad there are twoI knew I would have to go back and re-read these poems which I intend to do.

I feel like I spent so much time trying to unravel these poetic knots just to follow the plot that I couldn’t fully appreciate the poet’s art and skill. Hence the required re-reading.

I think I will be able to give a better review after that. The second Soledad’s closing image is incredible and probably my favorite part of either poem. An extremely difficult yet marvelous poem that rewards multiple re-readings. The poem’s hyper-baroque syntax forces you to process its imagery in such a way that, in order to understand Gongora’s meaning, you have to engage with his language in extremely unusual ways.

Ultimately, Gongora’s syntax performs the process of poetic perception itself in all its chaotic excitement, and in doing so transforms his readers into visionary poets, exulted yet burdened with poetic inspiration and imagery.

Adoro muchos de sus sonetos. Creo que estos tres textos son mis favoritos Won’t pretend I read this whole poem, start to finish — but I did give it the old “college” try. His allusions to mythology, his descriptions of pastoral life and seaside scenes, they spoke to me. The spurned lover at the wedding… I wish that he had finished.

Great metaphorical reflections coupled with an infusing of the quotidian world with mythological reference. There’s some great lines about owls too!!

Sometimes you have to read the soledzdes boring texts for classes and this was one of them. Feb 04, Francisco rated it it was amazing Shelves: Ian Lepine rated it it was amazing Jan 05, Alephz rated it it was amazing Jun 09, Victor Cioban rated it it was amazing Feb 06, Beverly rated it it was amazing Aug 10, Diana rated it liked it Mar 24, Mike Brecon rated it liked it Sep 05, Ele rated it liked it Jan 14, GAKO rated it it was amazing Jun 28, Carolina rated it liked it Dec 15, Patricia rated it really liked it Aug 28, There are no discussion topics on this book yet.

His style is characterized by what was called culteranismo, also known as Gongorism Gongorismo. This style existed in stark contrast to Quevedo’s Conceptismo. No trivia or quizzes yet. Yacen ahora, y sus desnudas piedras Visten piadosas yedras: Que a ruinas y soledadws estragos, Sabe el tiempo hacer verdes halagos. Just a moment while we sign you in to your Goodreads account.


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Logika odkrycia naukowego a logika rozumowania. Jerzy Bobryk – – Filozofia Nauki 2. Logika deontyczna miao logika norm? Or – – Zagadnienia Filozoficzne W Nauce Logika a empiria [recenzja] Aleksander Zinowjew, Logika nauki, Szymon Ananicz – – Civitas 7 7.

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Identitet duha i tela, privatnost i kategorije. Vesna Batovanja – – Synthesis Philosophica 23 2: Arto Mutanen – – Synthesis Philosophica 25 2: Uloga Duha Svetoga u Rimljanima 8. Ksenija Magda – – Kairos: Evangelical Journal of Theology 1 2: Filozofija, znanost i mediji. Added to PP index Total downloads 4of 2, Recent downloads 6 months 1of miso, How can I increase my downloads?

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AP datasheet, cross reference, circuit and application notes in pdf format. Record 1 – 11 of 11 【AP APLUS】【GXTN】【AXK5SP】Electronic Components In Stock Suppliers in 【Price】【Datasheet PDF】USA. AP part, AP sell, AP buy, AP stock, AP datasheet, Semiconductor, Electronic Components,Buy electronic components.

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AP7003 Datasheet PDF

Discussion in ‘ Microcontrollers ‘ started by deepuJan 26, Log in or Sign up. You can now buy finished microcontroller project dataheet us, Check out the Store for the complete list of projects. Need a custom project, Send us some details about your project. So that we can quote the price for it.

speech recognition

Buy projects Buy Custom Project? Pramod kulkarniMar 23, BinuMar 23, Hi Binu Sir, I am currently working on the project ” Voice activated intelligence robotic system” for which i am satasheet use of AP Chip. I have rigged up the circuit what has been given in the datasheets.

But the details for the traininng mode and recognization mode has not been given properly. So in the datasheets it is given that Step1: The 12 word memory banks must be cleared datasheeet power on and before store word. So for that I am mking use of push-button switch provided to the PIT4 pin.

How can I store the word into Memory bank and how i will come to know the training and recognization mode. Can you kindly help me this matter. Please find the schematics and the rapid share link for the datasheets. The IC will normally in recognization mode and for training press the corresponding button and speak the word within the 2seconds.


Then try by speaking the word. BinuMay 8, Hi Binu Sir, Thanx so much for the reply There was a slight mistake with hardware circuit what i did and now it is working fine.

【AP APLUS】Electronic Components In Stock Suppliers in 【Price】【цена】【Datasheet PDF】USA

These are the steps what i concluded with 3×4 Matrix kepad mode configuration. Fir this first we need to train this chip for the words and after that only recognization process will be done by the chip Step1: Power On the System Step2: Press 1 in Keyapd for storing the word in memory bank1 Step4: Speak into the mic to record into bank1 of word length of maximum of 1.

Same as Step4 Similrly proceed for the other words to store it in a different memory banks For Recognization mode In recognition mode LED1 will be active again waiting for an input word in the mic. Else LED1 will flash for the 3 seconds to indicate no match and then again revert to recognition mode. If a match was found and LED2 had become active, it will remain in that state for 3 minutes and then revert to recognition mode.

Have you got the output, did it recognize the voice correctly.

looking for HM datasheet | Electronics Forum (Circuits, Projects and Microcontrollers)

Hi Binu Sir, The recognization circuit works fine and even the chip can recognize the voice from far distance.

BinuMay 12, IC ap is not available in aplusindia. BinuMay 27, You must log in or sign up to reply here. New Ideas regarding projects.

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Macrosociology: the study of sociocultural systems /​ Frank W. Elwell ; with a foreword by Davis D. Joyce. Also Titled. Study of sociocultural systems. Author. Free Online Library: Frank W. Elwell. Macrosociology: The Study of Sociocultural Systems.(Book review) by “Teaching History: A Journal of Methods”; Education. Macrosociology: The Study of Sociocultural Systems. Abstract. While the organization of the book is good, I would have preferred that Chapter 1 4, titled.

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Macrosociology—the study of large-scale social structures and the fundamental principles of social organization—was the style of sociology practiced by the founders of the discipline. Instead, sociologists typically adopt a narrower focus, specializing in areas such as social psychology, medicine, religion, or the study of social stratification.

Examining the bigger picture is a task often left to public intellectuals. Sociocultural Systems aims to reinstate macrosciology as the heart of the discipline by demonstrating that both classical and contemporary macrosociologists stand upon common ground. Focusing on the broad issues that concerned the founders, Elwell addresses questions such as: Historically, what factors accounted for the origin, survival, and evolution of sociocultural systems? Why were some societies more technologically advanced than others?

What is the origin of capitalism? What factors determine the allocation of goods and services within and among societies? What effects do changes in government and economic institutions have on communities? Elwell argues that, as evolution does for biology, the macrosociological paradigm offers an analytical strategy that can be used both to guide and prioritize research in all of the myriad specialties within sociology and to lay forth an orderly body of knowledge for students.

Clearly articulating important sociological principles, Sociocultural Systems provides a critical understanding of social institutions and issues, while also furnishing a framework for possible solutions to the perennial social crises that are part and parcel of the development of human societies.

He is the author of Macrosociology: Four Modern Theoristsamong other works.

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It may be reproduced for non-commercial purposes, provided that the original author is credited. Download the entire book. Download Table of Contents. Evolutionism in the Work of the Founders. Download A Glossary of Sociology. Every page provokes new thoughts and engages the emotions.

Frank W. Elwell. Macrosociology: The Study of Sociocultural Systems. – Free Online Library

Above all, he finds what diverse thinkers held in common as they struggled to make sense of the social worlds. Elwell pf done an excellent job of blending the development of macrosocial theory from the early classics to the present day with a strong emphasis on the substance and processes of social change throughout human history.

An Introduction to Macrosociology. As a specialist in historiography, i. This book should have value for those in all social science disciplines, not just sociology and history. Economists, for example, could macrosocio,ogy from Elwell’s coverage of the origins of capitalism, the best explanation I’ve ever read, and political scientists from his discussion of the origins of the military-industrial complex. Indeed, this is a valuable work for any intellectually curious reader.

A Radical American Vision. All in all, this treatment of the material, structural and ideal features of societies is a worthy heir of Lenski. Solutions to Dilemmas in Cultural and Social Theory. Contact Us Terms of Use. Principles of Structure and Change Frank W. Elwell Order paperback Enable javascript to order ebook!

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Frank W. Elwell. Macrosociology: The Study of Sociocultural Systems.

Download the eBook Copyright: Principles of Macrosociology Download 2. Materialism in Macrosociology Download 3. Evolutionism in the Work of the Founders Download 4.

Contemporary Social Evolution Download 5. The State Download 8.


The Identification System for Power Stations “KKS” serves to identify plants, sections of plants KKS Kraftwerk-Kennzeichensystem – eBook. I work at a konsultant that build a kks of hydro power plant in indonesia,but until now,,i just still confuse, bucause we build a kks for hydro power plant with kks for . Kraftwerk-Kennzeichensystem,. Identification System for Power Station. KKS Keys. 1 st. Complete,non-project-related edition. Basis VGB 3 rd.

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KKS Identification System for Power Plants – print

The biggest way to impact an organization and even acountry is to focus on competency development of its workforce. Hence, a comprehensive training program is vital. Offering over courses listed our training calendar, we aim to support not only ourorganization and those in the Power Utility Engineering sectors, we too provide programsthat support the call of our Prime Minister to nurture and develop skilled and competentworkforce for the benefit of our country.

ILSAS provides both training and consulting services that will assist our clients toachieve excellence.

TNB ILSAS • Kraftwerk-Kennzeichen System (KKS) Coding

We ensure the services we provide to our clients meet the constantlyevolving technological advances locally and abroad so that those trained will always behighly valued. We are grateful to our holding company, Tenaga Nasional Berhad TNBto itsdivisions and subsidiaries for supporting us in our efforts.

Such strong collaborative effortwill be highly useful for understanding the latest developments in the field of power utilitycompetency engineering. This panel consisted of both power plant operatorsas builders, and thus enabled a wide range ofrequirements to be considered for formulation of thesystem.

The KKS or parts of it can also be combined with othercoding systems to meet other requirements. The identification system provides for the requirements ofall the various departments involved in planning, licencing,construction, operation and maintenance.

The following kraftwerk-kennzeochensystem shows the relationships between thebreakdown levels, application and contents of KKS.

Development aims at completeintegration into the international standardisation grid. A uniform identification structure, with a maximum of four breakdown levels, was createdfor all three types; the units referred to becoming smaller from left to right. The identifier is divided into breakdown levels and form left to right denote progressivelysmaller units.

For this reasons, the process-related location identifiers used in the variousKKS applications do not necessarily correspond with the generic designation.

Thefollowing examples illustrate this: The process-related designation is the most importance designation. It is used in kraftwerk-kennzeichensystwm and civil engineering as well as in the electrical and control and instrumentationengineering. This designation is necessary for the cabling and wiring of electrical and control andinstrumentation equipment.

This designation is used only for electrical and instrumentationand control system. These three types of designation use the same identification scheme, which is subdividedinto maximally four breakdown levels. Originally the titles of the breakdown levels werebased on process-related code: At above mentioned the breakdown levels as follows: The different applications of KKS are illustrated in the examples gives below.

It is shownthat even combinations of breakdown levels from the different facilities in one identifierare possible. The symbol means krafrwerk-kennzeichensystem data characters can be omitted. The designation of the process shows that the breakdownlevel that read from left to right are from overview of the biggest scale of the plant to thesmallest components inside the plant. Such identification must in any given case be agreed upon byall concerned as to: This breakdown level may be omitted if the identifier remains unequivocal.

Function — oriented subdivision of the total plant into main groups, groups, andsubgroups. There is no generally valid system for the meaning ofthe digits. Equipment — oriented subdivision of the equipment unit into main groups andsubgroups.

Component — oriented subdivision of the equipment unit into main groups andsubgroups.


The process-related identification is for many applications the most importantidentification, since it permits, for example, locations of electrical and control equipment,rooms, signals, and the identification in circuit diagrams related to particular functions.

In electrical and instrumentation control engineering sectors, the equipment for auxiliaryservices, power supply, open-loop-control, instrumentation, etc. The same applies to structures in civil engineering work. The complete notation i. For Level 2, DIN 40Part 2 specifies a maximum of 8 data units of operationalalphanumeric format for use as desired, i.

This DINstipulation is adopted for KKS application with a maximum of 6 data units but with theprovision that the first kraftwerk-kennzeichensysgem of breakdown level is to be a letter. Shafiee Mohd Yusoff You can publish your book online for free in a few minutes! View in Fullscreen Report. Read the Text Version. Create your own flipbook.


Revista Iberoamericana para la Investigación y el Desarrollo Educativo. ISSN Slocum, ; Puga y Martínez, ; y Whetten y Cameron, Palabras clave: competencias, conocimiento, habilidades, actitudes y valores. Abstract. Results 1 – 16 of 35 by David A. Whetten and Cameron,Kim S. . Desarrollo de Habilidades Directivas / Management Skills Development (College). 1 January. Palabras clave: gestión del conocimiento, habilidades directivas, . Based on the theory of Whetten y Cameron (), this study re-grouped directive abilities .. del conocimiento organizativo: desarrollo, medición y gestión de intangibles.

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Octubre – Marzo Less. Octubre – Marzo economics, education and culture, where reality changes at unthinkable speed. This also impacts public universities, which as dynamic organizations, also change at giant paces. In the face of this reality, new approaches are required, related to the ways and manners of perceiving the teaching process but, above all, related to eesarrollo managerial process, so that the fulfillment of different functions can be guaranteed and thus, the goals of the institution can be achieved.

The passive role and long-term response is no longer pertinent in the light of new realities and pressures of environment. Therefore, global environment demands constant revision of administrative processes to conduct the organization in the correct direction and to achieve success.

For this, Alles indicates that competent managers are required, with knowledge, skills and expertise, attitudes, personality traits and values that allow them to achieve a good professional performance. Accoding to Matos and Caridadp. Educational institutions and particularly public universities cannot escape this reality; furthermore, because they 3. In addition, it should be understood that the sole application of directive skills does not lead by itself, to the success of the Public University considered as an enterprise of knowledge, because it is also required to have management hablidades knowledge based on a structured process that implicates identification, creation, selection, organization, storage, filtering, sharing and, of course, applying whetteen knowledge.

Octubre – Marzo Likewise, this process should address the analysis, denomination and transference of expertise between the members of the organization, for the purpose of creating a value that can be reflected in the elements as intangible assets, organizational learning and, above all, the human, intellectual and relational capital, because management of knowledge is a work philosophy where, clearly the directorate has a crucial role.

This administration may be associated with organized, planned and continuous management of both processes and activities that potentiate knowledge and thus augments the competiveness of the organization, through creation and better use of the set of experiences, wisdom, values, information, perceptions and ideas that create the certain mental structure needed to so evaluate and incorporate new information, both in the individual and the collective.

Habilidades directivas by Itzel Ruiz on Prezi

Hence, the present study analyzes from a theoretical perspective, the directive abilities and knowledge management in Public Universities considered as knowledge corporations. Diverse practices, abilities and attributes of the effective manager Author Theoretical-Practical Contribution to Directive Skills Malone He identified seven fundamental practices associated with administrative and organizational effectiveness: Octubre – Marzo techniques of administration and organizational performance.

Whetten and They effected a study in directives, identifying 60 basic Cameron Personal Abilities development of self-conscience; management of personal stress; analytical and creative problem solvingInterpersonal Abilities direction, orientation and communication of support; achievement of power and influence; motivation of others; management of conflict and Group Abilities empowerment and delegation; team formation and effective teamwork; routing towards positive change.

Likewise, they added a group of Specific Abilities of Communication with direct links to each of the above groups. Brodbeck and They studied directives in 22 countries concentrating on the others Based on the theory of Whetten y Cameronthis study re-grouped directive abilities into nine: This study based the development of directive abilities on the phases of the management process planning, organizing, directing and controllinking them negotiation abilities, leadership, communication and work motivation.

This study reformulated Whetten and Cameron in a more didactic way also dwelling on interpersonal directive directiavs. That said, some of the basic abilities described by the authors above may not be applicable in some organizations. In the educative environment, for example, it would be ethically unacceptable that the directors develop the interpersonal ability of obtaining habioidades and influence. Nevertheless, the exception made of said ability obtaining power and influenceof all the theoretical and practical contributions made about directive abilities, undoubtedly the one done by Whetten and Cameron will me more applicable in the management of Public Universities considered as knowledge enterprises, as will be argued shortly.

Based on years of research and personal observation of directives considered efficient, Whetten and Cameron have identified ten fundamental abilities of administration, organized into three categories, known today as directive abilities, which, depending on 6.

In other words, they are the construction bricks on caameron rest an efficient administration. Octubre – Marzo These abilities are the following: According to Whetten and Cameronp. This outcome is the primary objective. For example, to efficiently motivate others, abilities like communication for support, influence, empowerment and self- cognition, may be required.

Whetten and Cameron In this sense, Casadop. That said, in the context of Public Universities, both in the internalization and the development of said abilities will allow those who have specific functions of directorship there, to apply in their sphere of habiljdades, each and every one of those personal, interpersonal and group attributes that be required to achieve a novel, habilidases and, therefore, efficient management, taking into consideration that the dramatic changes and dynamism of the labor, academic and professional world today, merit an integral compendium of abilities, competences and skills to deal with them in both an efficient and effective manner.

In the light of this idea, Harf and Azzerboni dd that directive abilities promote behaviors in others since they target coherence and dynamism, guaranteeing the implementation of democratic and participative processes so to produce and establish organizational values and fulfill the vision and the context of the situation that presents, as a leader, boss or assessor.

But, unfortunately, even though in theory it looks easy, for Whetten and Cameron the development of highly competent directive abilities is more complicated than developing dirfctivas types of abilities, like in a craft or profession.

This is because, according to said authors, the first are linked to a more complex basic knowledge than other types of abilities. Likewise, as may be observed in Figure 2, said development is cyclic, progressive and dynamic where, as aforesaid, the different abilities are interrelated and, in many cases, overlapping, and therefore the learning model of the said, proposed by Whetten and Cameron has almost universal applicability in any organization, regardless of size, type or activity, because they are cameroon to the directive himself, who must evaluate his current knowledge and behavior, thus directivaw the best practices and why these work, 9.

Development of directive competences: Besides, these attributes, desarorllo and strategies may be improved once the group of directives d managerial training so they enhance the style of management that they employ in their performance.

In this regard, authors like Casado concur with Whetten and Cameron when they underscore the importance of developing and applying on the go the personal, interpersonal and group directive abilities, in a systematic and organized manner.

It is worthwhile to go deeper into each one of them. Personal directive abilities Octubre – Marzo As can be seen in above figure, Whetten and Cameron state that in the group of personal directive desaarrollo, three specific abilities can be identified: The second directive ability observed in Figure 3 is the management of personal stress, which is related to the administration of time and the deswrrollo of the relation stress- time.

This is, according to the authors mentioned above, one of the most crucial but, at the same time, less attended abilities that a competent directive must possess; this is because the feelings of stress are the product of certain factors that can be found within and outside the individual.

Thus, the whettten of stress is conditioned by stressors, the reaction to them which occurs in two stages: These are denominated proactive strategies and are designed to initiate an action that resists the negative effects of stress.

Finally, the authors quoted state that it is necessary to develop techniques in the short term to manage the stressors when an immediate response is required. These are reactive strategies, applied as remedies in the moment to reduce the temporary effective of stress. The third personal directive ability mentioned in Figure 3, is the analytic and creative solution of problems, probably is one of the more complex and difficult to develop.

In this regard, the above quoted authors indicate that the analytic solving of problems is the applying of a systematic and logic method, which involves at least four stages: Octubre – Marzo making, as gabilidades been proposed by Valls The first consists of knowing how to direct, orient and communicate, in an efficient and effective manner, when support is required applying the fundamental bases of administration and management; therefore, their feasibility goes beyond the fulfilling of the assignments intrinsic to the directive job, since they must be moved towards the other members of the organization through competent abilities of communication.

The second, obtainment of power and influence, with regard to, according to the authors quoted, establishing a base of power in order to get the job don and obtain commitments to important objectives. Octubre – Marzo under the influence of power, whftten persuasion tends to forge trust and encourage internal commitment, on the other hand, coercion and intimidation erode trust, produce only superficial acceptance and foment subservience, as affirmed by Whetten and Cameron The third ability, motivation of others, evidently is based on the second component of work performance: For the authors above quoted, even though it is important for directives to attend to training and support of the needs of the subordinates and to involve himself in an active way in the process of contracting and adjustment of the job position in order to insure an adequate attitude, the influence of his actions in the daily motivation of his subordinates is vital.

Efficient directives allot sufficient time to animate and strengthen motivation of his subordinates, which reflects on his effort and interest.

The fourth ability described dsarrollo Figure 4 is another component of work relations: The management of conflict. In regard to this, Whetten and Cameron indicate that interpersonal conflict is an essential part and is omnipresent in organizational life and, therefore, the directive ability for managing it is that which is composed of three fundamental skills: Finally, as is indicated in Habilidadee 5, the third assembly of fundamental directive abilities proposed by Whetten and Cameron corresponds with the group abilities: Octubre – Marzo Source: More than being a Push strategy, in which directives induce employees to respond in desirable ways through incentives and influence techniques, empowerment is a strategy of attraction.

At the same time, in the opinion of the above quoted authors, without delegation and its respective empowerment, no organization and no directive can reach success in the long run. Delegation includes other people in the job activity and is an action inherent to all directive positions.


Regarding the second group ability, team formation and efficient teamwork, it is based on the strategic vision of the directive, with dw he, knowing fully habiludades subordinates abilities, can form dynamic teams that can reach efficiently and effectively, the objectives, assignments or goals that have been allocated to them, in pro of common benefit of the organization and its consequent success.

Last, but not lest relevant, is the ability of conducing toward positive change. This is, without doubt, dirdctivas of the abilities that every directive from any sphere or organization must attend imperatively, considering each and every one, personal, as well as interpersonal and group abilities yabilidades above, as each one of them contributes to generate this vision of positive habilidases in the directive, this future visualization of the ideal organization, adaptable and in synchrony with changes of the environment in which desarrolo is immersed.

According to Whetten and Cameron the directive must be capable of generating habilidadws positive change both in a universal and an expanding manner, considering the need of structures and tendencies to stabilize the organization. The development of the directive abilities before described personal, interpersonal, and group is not the only thing required to carry out the transformation that Public Universities need, their applicability is also necessary in pro of the optimization of the processes involved in the so called management of knowledge in order to achieve organizational goals, because it is, according to Larrea p.

According to Bueno knowledge management organizes human talent for planning, coordinating and controlling the flow of knowledge that is produced in educational organizations, relating with its activities and environment, in order to create competences en directives, teachers, students, parents and the general community.

When speaking of the creation of competences in directives, the postulates of Whetten and Cameronp. At the same time, practice without the conceptual knowledge desarroloo, is sterile and ignores the necessity of flexibility and adaptation to different situations. Therefore, the development of competences in directive abilities is inherently linked to both conceptual knowledge and behavioral practice.

Notwithstanding the above, authors like Manes emphasize the need for professionalization for directives in educational institutes, insisting on conduction and direcctivas as destined institutional functions, where the people responsible for these assignments, in this case, the directives, must know new techniques that allow them to conduct, direct or manage better educational projects, effective from the pedagogical, efficient from the administrative, effective from the desarrolpo and transcendent from the cultural approach.

Even though there is general consensus about this last affirmation in the specialized literature, this traditional approach, insufficient in educative organizational reality, and of course, contrary to the assumptions of the management of knowledge that involves transference of experiences and personal occurrences, it opposes not only the assumptions of Whetten and Cameron related to the theory-practice balance, but also those of Del Regnop.

A good theory is one that reflects reality truly. Practice, on the other hand, seeks to introduce change, modify reality.

Octubre – Marzo personnel in charge of such activities in the institution, as can be observed in the following Figure: This is because, of course, traditionally this management is associated to the organized, planned and continuous direction of processes and activities that potentiate knowledge so to augment the competitiveness of the organization, through the creation and better use of the conjunction of experiences, cultural knowledge, values, information, perceptions and ideas that create a certain mental structure to evaluate and incorporate new information, both in the individual and the collective.

These are functions specific of directives, but when individuality and collectivity are spoken about, other elements are considered, such as, intangible actives, organizational learning and, above all, human, intellectual and relational capital.

Developing Management Skills: David A. Whetten, Kim S. Cameron: : Books

whettenn Management of knowledge is not the mere indiscriminate flow of information but more a structured process that involves identifying, creating, selecting, organizing, storing, filtering, sharing and, of course, using the knowledge.

Octubre – Marzo creating a value that will be reflected in the afore elements; thus, management of knowledge is directovas philosophy of work. Finally, the management of knowledge in educational organizations, especially in Public Universities, should be founded both on a dialogic action and a shared vision, that is, from transference towards transformation. The conversion of knowledge should be in tune with both the personnel of the institution and the community, to so confront a before with an after, in dessarrollo of the construction of an ideal future.

These abilities are classified into three major groups: A fundamental element of these directive abilities that differentiate them from other managerial tools is their practical application.

Although they need more research and theorization about thet are, what they represent, how to implement them and what they produce, really their habulidades component is practical: The only way in camron these abilities may On the other hand, if the Public University is seen as a real business of knowledge, its efficient and effective management is imperative to achieve organizational success. Therefore, if its directives develop a conjunction of abilities that cameeon optimal performance of functions, it will be possible to apply them in their diverse types personal, interpersonal and group for the management of knowledge.

Theoretically this is realizable if the management of knowledge is considered not only as the mere transference or dissemination of information but as the real and complex process that it is, with, besides, a conjunction of specific abilities of communication linked to the above described, which at the same time may be applied to the identification, creation, selection, organization, storage, filtering, sharing and use of knowledge as a conjunction of experiences, cultural wisdom, values, information, perceptions direcrivas ideas that create a certain mental structure in the individual so to evaluate and incorporate new information, both in the individual and the collective plane.

Octubre – Marzo Finally, the management of knowledge is a process that all organizations that wish to stay in the rhythm of change in the environment should dominate optimally, so their dynamism and team conformation may permit the forming of planned creative strategies, coordinated to generate, maintain and integrate their intellectual capital, favoring hwetten knowledge for the benefit of the common good, creating culture favorable to change and innovation; for this to be feasible, to be able to achieve successful, efficient and effective management, for the organization and the collective entity, the directive as an individual must internalize the fact that a conjunction of specific directive abilities is required, developed and improved through practice, by dde and evaluation of the positive aspects encountered therein.

Cultural variation of leadership prototypes across 22 Habipidades countries. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology. Entrenamiento emocional en el trabajo.